- What Is A Type 2 EV Charger?
- A little more about pins
- History of Creation
- Using the Type 2 Electric Car Charger
With the increasing complexity of technology and accessories for Electric Vehicles (EVs), it is important to be updated with the latest trends. Currently, there are several types of EV plugs used to charge vehicles around the world, however, the Type 2 car charger is the norm in all European countries.
Figure 1: Type 2 (Mennekes) & CCS2 charging plugs
If you want to learn more about the Type 2 electric car charger, then this article is for you. Here we explain the basics for this type of charger, introduce in detail every pin and their function, summarize their history, and explain how to use them to charge your EV.
The type 2 car charger or type 2 EV plug is an accessory used to charge electric vehicles using privately-owned or public EV charging stations across Europe and in a few other countries. This plug, better known as the Mennekes plug, is designed under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standardIEC 62196.
There are two variations for the type 2 EV plug: the AC charger and the DC charger. The AC charger is simply known as the Mennekes plug or the type 2 connector, while the DC charger is known as the Combined Charging System 2 (CCS2). Both plugs share similar pins and feature other unique ones.
The order and the function of the pins in the type 2 EV charger and CCS2 EV plugs are what makes this charger different from others used around the world. In this section we explain the pins and their function in detail:
Figure 2: Layout of the Mennekes (Type 2) AC plug
The Proximity Pilot (PP) and the Control Pilot (CP) are the main control pins designed for the type 2 EV plug. Here is how each of these works:
- Proximity Pilot (PP): the PP is the first pin to function since it is the one in charge of verifying if the EV plug is properly connected to the type 2 charging point or EV Supply Equipment (EVSE), indicating that the EV charging process can start. In case the proximity pilot pin is not properly connected at any point, it will disable the charging process.
- Control Pilot (CP): the CP pin is the one in charge of providing two-way communication between the electric vehicle and the EVSE. This pin is in charge of alerting of any malfunction to the charger, providing the charging status of the vehicle, and ordering the vehicle when to start charging.
The Protective Earth (PE), Neutral AC (ACN), and AC Phases 1, 2, and 3 (AC1, AC2, and AC3), are the pins in charge of providing the electrical connection and protection during the charging process. This is how these operate:
- Protective Earth (PE): the PE pin is in charge of protecting EVs from overload and users from electroshock. It does so by creating a current discharge path for a fault current to earth.
- Neutral AC (ACN):The ACN pin is in charge of closing each AC circuit, creating a return path for the current and a reference voltage at the same time. All phase connections share the ACN pin as the common neutral.
- AC Phases 1, 2, and 3 (AC1, AC2, and AC3): The AC1, AC2, and AC3 pins will deliver the AC power to the vehicle to be converted into DC to charge the battery. Some type 2 charging station units are designed to deliver a single-phase current, while others do so on a three-phase connection, the only variation will be the number of active phases delivering power to the vehicle.
Type 2 DC EV Plug (CCS2)
Figure 3: Layout of the CCS2 EV plug
The CCS2 EV plug is quite similar to the Mennekes AC charging, featuring the same CP, PP, and PE pins, but instead of using the AC1-3 pins, it uses the DC+ and DC- pins. For the CCS2 plug you only need to understand how the DC pins work, since the CP, PP, and PE pins operate the same:
- Direct Current (DC+ and DC-): The DC+ and DC- pins are the electrical DC connections of the type 2 CCS electric car charger used to deliver a high current and high voltage to the vehicle. The current flows from the DC+ pin of the CCS2 plug, to the battery of the vehicle, and returns through the DC- pin in a closed circuit.
Figure 4: Mennekes company logo
Mennekes was founded as an electrical company in 1935, created by Aloys Mennekes. This company specialized in designing and manufacturing all types of industrial plugs and electrical sockets for different electrical and electronic applications, including different self-manufactured aluminum connectors, and even the famous industrial round CEE plug.
The company entered the world of electromobility in 2008 and expanded several times over the years, once in 2008 and then in 2013. Finally, in 2014 the company accomplished the standardization of its MENNEKES EV charging plug as the European norm. Since that year, vehicles manufactured in or imported to Europe have been featuring the Mennekes type 2 EV charger plug for AC and DC charging.
A type 2 EV charger is designed to be user-friendly and extremely easy to use. For AC charging you should connect the Mennekes plug into the inlet of your vehicle by inserting the plug as you push the safety mechanism with your thumb. After the charging is done, make sure the type 2 charging station allows you to unplug the charger, then push the safety mechanism to pull it out of your vehicle.
The CCS2 EV plug for DC charging requires the same process, with the only difference being that you may need to move the lid covering the DC pin on your vehicle receptacle before plugging the CCS2 charger. After the charging process is done, disconnect the CCS2 charger like with the AC plug.
Nick Zamanov is a head of sales and business development at Cyber Switching. He is an expert in EV infrastructure space and he is an EV enthusiast since 2012, Since then Nick strongly believed that electric vehicles would eventually replace Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cars.